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biological theories of crime causation essay

Biological theories of crime causation once accepted the theory that man operates based on free will and rational thought when they choose what and what not to do (Siegel, 2000). Franz Gall was the first Western writer to firmly locate the roots of personality in the brain (Schmalleger, 2012). Biological and Classical Theories of Crime Dennis Neal University of Phoenix Tracy Williams January 27, 2010. These theories are categorized within a paradigm called positivism (also known as determinism), which asserts that behaviors, including law-violating behaviors, are determined by factors largely beyond individual control. These theories have generally asserted that criminal behaviour is a normal response of biologically and psychologically normal individuals to particular kinds of social circumstances. The most famous proponent of this approach is Cesare Lombroso. It has been proposed that crime is determined by biological factors whereas others are more convinced that environmental factors are more influential to those who commit crimes. Italian School biological explanations have not resonated in criminal justice systems in America. It goes well beyond the rather imprecise boundaries of street crime or the limited issues of violence and theft that are a major focus of mass media news and entertainment. Three studies had been taken to explain the biological factors of crime causation. In a 3-4 page paper, explain and discuss biological, sociological, and psychological theories of crime causation. Biological explanations of criminal behavior Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Biological Theories “Biological theories of crime focus on the physiological, biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors that influence criminal behavior. Phrenology, from the Greek words phren, meaning “mind,” and logos, meaning “knowledge,” is based on the belief that human behavior originated in the brain. Theories of Crime Causation. However, such theories also stress the complex link between a person's biology and the broad span of social or environmental factors that sociological theories examine” (Denno, 2009). In order to more effectively address crime, it is important to understand the theories of crime causation and be able to provide evaluations of human behavior. There are many theories of crime causation, but in large groups, these theories are often narrowed significantly, as most organized criminal groups have similar goals. Introduction The assignment for this week is to discuss and use examples of how Sociological, Biological and psychological theories of crime causation will affect human behavior and their actions. The positivists (who used experimental or inductive method in making generalisations) rejected the concept of ‘free will’ advocated by the classicists and the neo-classicists and laid emphasis on the doctrine of ‘determinism’. These include phrenology, Lombroso’s atavisms, Hooton’s work with physiology, Sheldon’s somatotyping, and XYY syndrome (as a causal factor of criminal behavior). American Intercontinental University Unit 1 Individual Project CRJS 105 – Theories of Crime Causation November 11th, 2010 Abstract The following will examine the differences between criminalists, criminologists and forensic psychologists. Biological School is an important perspective in the biological theory. A number of theories have tried to explain why people take part in deviant behavior, which is defined as any behavior that goes against the dominant norms of society.Biological explanations, psychological reasons, and sociological factors have all been linked to such behavior, but three of the major biological explanations for deviancy have been discredited. Be sure to provide an example of each and include a reference to the examples that may include an article, case study, adjudicated case, etc. However, some traces still exist. 36). Biological theories of crime causation argue that genetics and heredity can produce biologically-based differences in behavior and that there is a relationship between physical characteristics, bodily features, and criminality. There are many different theories of crime. Social factors are a reflection of environmental sources of influence, such as socioeconomic status. 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